Water Storage and Irrigation System

A small deck and arbour disguises the concrete cistern which collects our spring water, and provides a beautiful space from which to enjoy the pond. The hand pump allows us to access water if the power is out.

Water is a precious resource on the Southern Gulf Islands… and figuring out how to manage what we have when we have it is integral for everyone.  The water source for our three acres of land is supplied by a spring, which has been a registered water source since the 1950’s.  It comes out underground from fissures through the bedrock slope that we have built our house on, and it is beleived that the main supply is filled by rain water running off of George Hill, which rises to the north of our property.  While the land had been only mildly developed, the source of the spring was dug and pooled into a gravel bed and directed to a small concrete cistern.  Previous owners added a small water pump and plastic 300 gallon tank for their domestic use, which serviced the trailer that we became residents of when we purchased the land.

2009- pond dug and water cistern going in

The spring flows all year, but has seasonal fluctuations of flow which correspond quite directly to local rain fall.  It slows to a trickle during the dry season, and fills up again within a few weeks of our first fall rains.  So we have a huge abundance of water in the winter, but we still have to be careful not to overtax the storage capacity in the summer.  With more gardens being created, and more water facilities in the house up and running, we needed to amend our water system to include more water storage.

We added a 1200 gallon buried concrete cistern at the time that we dug the pond, in 2009.  Our field is solid clay, and so was horrifically wet all winter and the pond helped to redirect the incoming winter moisture.  The concrete cistern overflows into the pond, which overflows towards the garden.  However, the water level of the pond drops below the outfall in June, and so the spilling waterway dries up in the season when we could use it the most.  As the next 6 years went along, we watered the garden by hand (which got to be a bigger and bigger job) and experienced  a few summers of extended hot dry conditions, which proved difficult for the spring. Last April we addressed this by adding 2 plastic above ground tanks, each holding 2,000 gallons, for the prupose of irrigation.  The summer following was another long and dry season, but we had awesome results with keeping plants well watered through drip lines and mulch, using the water we set aside from the spring.  We had to refill them partly in August, setting the refill flow at a slow trickle overnight.  By the time the rains returned in october, our season of growing was less intense and we could turn off the irrigation.

 

Here is a water map of our system as it is functioning at this time.

  1. Underground spring collects into gravel bed and perforated pipe, then gravity feeds to fill the cistern.
  2. Buried concrete cistern holds 1200 gallons, and overflows into the pond.
  3. Water pump in the shop draws water up to the house for our domestic supply.
  4. Water goes through a UV filter.
  5. Outside house tap is turned on to fill the two above ground cisterns using the filtered spring water. (2000 gallons each)

The water is then fed by gravity into the irrigation lines.  A 1″ hose heads to the orchard, where it is split into a 3/4″ line that continues around the pond, and into a 1/2″ line that runs through the orchard.  Drip hoses with either 6″or 12″ spaced drip holes irrigate the rows of cordon espalier fruit trees, and into the various flower, herb, and berry beds.  The veggie garden system is similar, with various drip lines coming off the 1/2″ line.  We dug the 3/4″ line shallowly into the ground around the pond as well as burying the 1/2″ line in places where it crossed paths to avoid damage from stepping on it or tripping.  Two timers are attached to the lines leading into the orchard and leading into the veggie garden, since each area has differing water needs, and shut off valves are placed at the major forks to allow us to manually open or close each section.

The drip system was fairly straight forwards to install after a lesson from islander John Eckfeldt who supplied us with the system.  It is fairly flexible and configurations are easy to adapt for year to year changes.  It works well with a gravity feed, although it is usually affixed to a pressurized system.  Our large tanks are uphill from the gardens by a small degree, so we did some drip tests to see if the volume of water coming from one drip hole was the same as the product indicated, as well as testing out a length of drip line to see if the drip rate was the same after 20 feet.  The timers we bought are also intended to work with less pressure such as gravity provides.

 

 

 

Framing~ The Bones

roofDespite a very frigid December (for the west coast), we managed to continue building just in time to get the roof sealed up and water tight before the wet west coast winter starts in.  Here is a brief account of the structure of the frame, and the way in which we are going to insert the straw bales.

first wallOur decision to use a stick frame method as opposed to a timber frame (as we did for our first house) was mostly a compromise of time and money.  Stick framing is super fast, and we hired an experienced framer friend (thanks Danny!) to work with Colin and his design with the curved roof lines.  Dan helped Colin put his drawings into a model of the house in Sketch-Up, a computer program for architecture, so they could get accurate measurements for all the framing, especially where the lengths of the 2×4’s change subtly with the curves.  The curved roof was the main reason to use stick framing- it was eaiser and faster to frame the studs under the curved beam which is essentially two 2×8’s (cut out of 2×10’s to get the curve) overlapping all along as one continuous header the length of the roof- this also alleviates the need for headers over doors and windows.  Framing started on December 2, and was done in a month, despite a week break over Christmas.  We still have some interior shear walls to frame, as we were focused on the walls that were necessary for the roof.  Also, window and door framing will be cut in sometime in the spring.  Many people have asked us about how 2×4’s can be the only thing holding up a living roof, but the engineer says they are strong enough with the 3×8 beam on top.

The exterior walls are framed to 18 inch centres, as we will be standing the bales on end between the 2×4’s.  A lengthwise notch will be cut down each side of the bales to fit them snug around the framing, and thus hide the wood frame down the centre of the wall of bales.  The new international building code for straw bales has published findings that the bales placed 14 inches wide in the wall is the same insulation value as their 18 inch wide option, due mostly to the orientation of the straw.

All of our interior walls are shear walls (plywood on one side, and attached to the foundation directly), as required by the engineer, since our exterior walls are straw bales and not considered to have any shear strength.  The shear strength is the load that an object is able to withstand in a direction parallel to the face of the material, as opposed to perpendicular to the surface.  In walls, it is usually plywood or cross bracing that provides the shear strength, preventing any side to side movement.  So our internal walls are (or will be) sheeted with plywood and continue down to the foundation.  At the foundation, the walls are secured with hold downs to resist any upwards movement in an earthquake.

The roof is standard construction with 2×4 strapping over 2×12 joists, though in the more curvy parts of the roof we had to use double layers of 1×4.  On top of the strapping is standard 1/2″ plywood decking and a 4″ curb all around the edge to keep the dirt in.  We decided to go with a double layer torch on roof membrane this time, which should easily last a very long time, longer than us… The roof was torched on in early January and we are now secure and dry for the rest of the winter.  Colin is back to work in his shop for the next few months to get caught up with his ThujaWoodArt projects, but come the spring we hope to do the infloor heating and plumbing under the concrete slab on grade subfloor, and prepare for installing the straw bales in the summer.  We will be offering workshops for installing the straw bales and plastering in the summer through the local Heartwood Folk School, check their website for more info as we get closer!

Phase 2- Continuing the Build

foundationFoundationThe basis on which something stands or is supported; a base.  The basis or groundwork of anything.  An underlying basis or principle for something.

An overview–  The previous straw bale house chronicled on this blog was the first section of two parts of our whole building plan.  The first half is designed as an in-law suite for my mother, with a shared art studio space, and this second half that we are just starting will be bedrooms for us and our kids and a garden level living space.  The 3 acres that we have contains a lower open feild where the pond and gardens are situated, a forested upper area, and a sloping face of bedrock in between.  Since we don’t want to clear the forest or use up valuable growing space, we have designed the house to be built on the rock.  The first half sits at the top and overlooks the pond and gardens, and the other half is separeated into two floors, each built like a terrace from the garden level up to the existing section and attached with an enclosed walk way.  The total square footage will be about 2,000 square feet.

excavatorWe are building with as much attention to natural materials as possible.  We are using sustainably sourced or salvaged resources whenever we can.  The walls in this half will be straw bale with clay and lime plasters, with a living roof, just as in the first half.  We are aware of the imprint of building houses these days and the huge amount of toxic off gasing that occurs with many conventional materials as well as the chemically saturated waste that ends up in the landfill.  However, since we are building within the boundaries of building codes and needing to meet the requirements of engineers, architects and inspectors, there are just some things we can’t avoid.  Natural building can be a tag that is placed on our house as a whole, but I think it is important to state that not every aspect of the house is “natural”.  Such as, for example, the foundation.

The second half-  There are not many places in Canada where you could begin to build a house in November.  Of course, we didn’t plan to start at this point, but the process of aquiring the permit took longer than we expected.  We learned from our previous build that everything will take longer than expected.  Amazingly, the weather has been quite co-operative, allowing us to complete the form work in one week, and giving us the sunniest day of the month on the day we scheduled the pumper truck.

There is not much about the foundation that would fall into the “natural” category.  We hired an excavator to dig the footprint, and rented a large rock drill with a giant, gas powered compressor to drill out 140 holes in the bedrock, each ranging from 16″ to 24″ deep and filled with concrete grout and rebar.  We purchased a lot of 2×10 and 2×4 lumber as well as some plywood for the forms that we hope to re-use again in the framing if possible.  We set five runs of rebar inside the length of the footings and stem walls with a 1′ grid of rebar in the higher walls and snap ties every 2 feet, and placed knockouts of pvc in the footings wherever we need drainage, septic, and water runs.  We hired a concrete pumper truck and 3 truck loads of concrete.  We set anchor bolts every 3 feet in the top of the concrete to attach the framing.  The engineer is happy, the geo-tech is happy, the building inspector is happy.  This is not terribly extraordinary in the world of regular construction, in fact it is quite standard and even a “small” job.  To me it seems rather complex, requiring a lot of effort and money to create forms that become deconstucted and a structure that is largely unseen in the end.

However, this crucial first step is the foundation upon which we will begin to build up our visions of a beautiful, healthy, comfortable, sustainably functioning and lovingly hand built family house.   

 

Winter Collection~ Blending Angora

drum carderIn the past few months, I have been blending my collected angora fibre with a variety of other fibres.  After changing out the cloth on my old drum carder to one that has a higher tpi (tooth per inch), which is better for finer fibres such as angora, I started with alpaca roving, which is very soft and also white, the same as my angora.  It carded and spun up beautifully!  I moved on to using a heavier merino wool that was hand painted in shades of light blue and purple, which became more diffused when I added the angora, but which held a lovely softness.  I also tried out some long staple llama locks in auburn, which produced a heavier weighted blend.  Lastly, I have blended the angora with a black merino wool, which gave a very tweed-ish grey, and was still very soft.  Here are some photos of replacing the carding cloth on my drum carder.  I took the whole thing apart, and pried off the old cloth.  The new cloth was cut to the correct length and stapled back onto the large drum, as well as the small one.  It was important to notice the tooth direction when putting the cloth on!  (Teeth at the top of the drum need to bend away from the loading tray).  Everything got a good cleaning before putting it all back together.

Making a blend on the drum carder-  I didn’t do any specific ratio measurements, as I am still getting a feel for how much angora I need to include at a minimum to still have a predominant angora feel.  I have been estimating a half and half ratio to start.

Generally, I loaded the tray and carded it through, doing about three loads before I pulled the batt off the large drum.  Then I carded the whole batt through once again very slowly, letting it spread out while it was pulled in to get a smooth, overall mix of the two fibres.  I didn’t take any photos while I was spinning it!  Here are some scarves I wove with the yarn from that combination, and a skein of angora/alpaca in which I spun little coloured bits.

I am very excited about exploring more options with the angora I am getting from my rabbits.  The neutral colours of the angora are flexible with colour combinations, and the added softness and warmth are simply divine!  These and other creations are for sale on my etsy store~ Silver Circle Weaving.  I also look forward to having all my weaving for sale at the Christmas Craft Fair at the community hall on Pender Island this weekend!

First Pear Crop

We have six pear trees of three varieties in our cordon orchard that was planted in 2014.  This was the first year that we got pears from these trees- a small number of very large pears of each kind.  In my attempt to chronical the annual progress of the orchard, here is a brief description of the pear varieties we planted.

conference pearConference pear- Conference is by far the most widely grown pear in north-west Europe. The variety was found in 1884 as an open pollinated seedling, from a Leon Leclerc de Laval, and cultivated by Thomas Rivers, from Sawbridgeworth in England. It was named ‘Conference’ in 1895 after the ‘British National Pear Conference’ where it was first exhibited. Not long after, this variety occupied a major position within European pear cultivation, due not only to its good flavour characteristics but also to its excellent storage properties. During the last few decades the quality of Conference has been further improved following changes to cultivation techniques, making it the highest in pear cultivation in the Netherlands and Belgium.  Ready for harvest mid september, the conference is a medium sized pear with an elongated bottle, and is suitable for fresh-cut processing.  The skin is thick greenish-brown, becoming pale yellow when ripe, with a moderate amount of russet. The flesh is white, but turns pale yellow when the pear is ripe.  The texture is very fine and soft, and the flavour is sweet.

From European heritage, to local Pacific Westcoast modern varieties…

orcas pearOrcas Pear- Discovered on Orcas Island, Washington, and introduced in 1986, this excellent, disease-resistant variety produces good crops of very large and attractive, carmine blushed, yellow pears with smooth, sweet, buttery flesh. Excellent for fresh eating, canning and drying, Orcas Pear is very reliable and productive and ripens in early to mid-September. These beautiful and tasty Pears can weigh of 1 lb. each!  The Orcas is included in the gardens of the Western Washington Fruit Research Foundation, which works to advance fruit horticultural programs for the unique Western Washington maritime climate through advocacy, research, education, and demonstration for the benefit of the general public and the small farmer.

rescue pearRescue Pear- This very large, attractive, yellow fruit with reddish-orange blush is sweet, juicy and flavorful, and great for fresh eating and drying. Well adapted to our Pacific Northwest growing conditions, Rescue is a vigorous, productive, and reliable variety.  The rescue pear was found by Knox Nomura, a nursery grower near Buckley, WA. He had seen the pear at fruit shows but the exhibitor never allowed anyone to take cuttings from his tree during his lifetime, and after his death the tree was scheduled for removal to expand an adjacent cemetery. Knox Nomura “rescued” scionwood from this original tree, and sent trees to Mount Vernon in 1975 for testing. Introduced in 1987.  Ripens early september.

We deeply enjoyed tasting these home grown pears and getting to know their unique qualities.  I look forwards to the maturing of these young trees and the productivity that will flourish as I learn the best pruning techniques for the cordon espalier system that they have been established on.

 

Expanding the Orchard

chojuro asian pear

Last fall we ordered 5 more fruit trees from Bob Duncan at Fruit Trees and More, our favourite fruit tree supplier.  This time we got 3 plums and two asian pears, all on a dwarf stock.  Bob did some initial pruning when we went to pick up the trees, and showed me how to bend out the remaining branches to encourage tiers of branches spread in a circle around the main leader.  I have tied down the branches while they are still bendable to encourage an open shape.  I planted the trees right away with a sprinkling of bone meal and organic fertilizer, watered them in well and later applied a thick layer of leaf mulch.  Here are the details of the varieties:

Seneca plum– large purple fruit, resembling Italian variety.  Ripens early september, with high quality eating plums also good for canning and drying.

Yellow Egg plum– large, oval yellow fruit with yellow flesh.  Ripens mid september, soft and sweet for eating and canning.

Stanley plum-Ripens mid september, European plum medium to large, excellent for eating fresh, cooking, or canning.

Nijisseki asian pear– ripens late august, medium round, greenish yellow skinned, firm and crisp, excellent eating quality.

Chojuro asian pear– ripens mid august, medium round, brown skinned, mildly sweet, firm and crisp.

asian pear and native berries

asian pear and native berries

The new area is to the west of the orchard that we put in two years ago, and is slightly shadier and wetter than the rest of the open space.  However, this was the only place we could expand the fencing due to our continued plans to have excavators and piles of building materials in the next few years.  I dug trenches for drainage to keep the areas where the bare root fruit trees were to be planted as well drained as possible.  I have been wanting to establish areas of berries, like blueberries, strawberries and raspberries, but I think this new area is too dark and wet.  I discovered that there are lots of native berries that produce abundantly, so I added a few plants each of evergreen huckleberry (growing 5-6 feet tall), lingonberry (2 feet tall), and wintergreen (ground cover).

wintergreen

wintergreen

Hummingbirds love the small, pink-white flowers like fairy bells of the evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum). Late in the summer, black-purple fruits form. Native only to the Pacific Coast (USDA 6-9), it likes acidic soil and can tolerate salt spray and strong winds.  The delicious fruit for pies, jam and unique toppings is an added bonus. In forested areas it can reach 15’ and spreads to form beautiful, dense stands. The glossy, dark green leaves are small and the new shoots are a bronzy red. In full sun, it dwarfs to 3-5,’ and the mature foliage often turns reddish purple.

lingonberry

lingonberry

Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry) is a short evergreen shrub in the heath family that bears edible fruit, native to boreal forest and Arctic tundra throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to North America.  These plants thrive in moist, acidic soils from Massachusetts to Alaska, producing an abundance of healthful, cranberry-like fruits.

Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbent) is a ground cover that produces the classically refreshing flavour of crisp mint.  The small red berries can be mealy, but are rich in vitamin c.  It is cold hardy and keeps it’s glossy leaves all winter, producing white or pink-tinged bell-like flowers.

new orchard

drainage trenches running between planting areas

Already established in the same area is a black elderberry (sambucus nigra) and three chokecherries that I planted in the margins of the original orchard area.  They are all now nice and tall and bushy, and producing lots of bunches of berries.  Last fall I made a jar of elderberry syrup.  We also have a small native red huckleberry, so I hope to see this corner of the garden flourish with series of all types that we, as well as the birds, can enjoy! dwarf fruit trees

 

 

Silver Circle Weaving on Etsy

silvercircleweavingI finally decided to test out the services of Etsy to sell my weaving online.  So far, I have been offering my creations at the local farmers’ market during the summer, and I have often received inquiries from visitors about how they can see my work online.  I have really only used this blog to post photos, but never really had a purchasing format.  I am hopeful that Etsy will help connect my hand woven creations with those around the globe seeking to support small home businesses focusing on hand made items.

Visit my shop:  Silver Circle Weaving

I also realized that I needed a name… so I did some research on spinning and weaving and the symbolic associations with Celtic mythology, which I have always been interested in.  This is what I found:

83117db14f606e3e121892b219b44076Arianrhod, Celtic Welsh Star Goddess of Reincarnation, is known as “Silver Wheel”, “Silver Circle”, “High Fruitful Mother”, “Star Goddess”, and Sky Goddess. She is considered by many to be a Moon Goddess.  She is a primal figure of feminine power, a Celestial Mother Goddess who through her role as Goddess of Reincarnation, rules fertility and childbirth.  Arianrhod also rules arts, magic, and manifestation. As the Goddess of the Silver Wheel she is associated with spinning and weaving.  With Her wheel she magically weaves the tapestry of life.

Things sacred to Arianrhod are the owl, wolf and the birch tree.  The owl has long been associated with death whereas the birch tree is the tree of new beginnings.  To the Celts, the wolf was associated with the power of the moon.  Thus, Arianrhod’s wheel circles the continuum from birth to death and to birth once again, and creating the journeys therein.

Her palace was found in the far north on the magical, rotating island of Caer Sidi, which probably means “Revolving Castle”. She lived there with her female attendants. The ancients believed that her domain and her castle, Caer Arianrhod, were in the Corona Borealis, the constellation of stars moving around the apparently motionless North Star.  Legend tells us that poets and astrologers learned the wisdom of the stars at Caer Sidi.

As “Silver Wheel”, Arianrhod was responsible for the souls of warriors who fell in battle. She gathered them aboard her ship, the Oar Wheel. and transported them to Emania, also know as Moonland.  In the Northern sky, whirling around the enduring stability of the north star, Arianrhod presided over the fates of departed souls, nurturing their journeys between lives.

images-1 c525809ad0d9e5ac521c00cc79790dd7

I like the simple image of a silver circle, and I hope to also create a little design to go with it.  I also hope to be offering more items with my hand spun angora fibre that I have been harvesting from my own french angora rabbits.  I am still in the process of learning the skills of blending and spinning the very soft and silky fibres so that I may integrate it within the weaving.

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